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 MR. WILLIAM C. UBAGAN CSP,LSO

Marketing Officer, CLM-CBIS Philippines

 

INTRODUCTION

  • Threats on our executives have escalated: From VERY SERIOUS to EXTREMELY SERIOUS
  • Kidnapping has become an
  • Only “industry” that posted phenomenal growth during the Asian currency crisis in 1997 – P300M paid

KIDNAPPING – is a threat of violence and terrorism

  • Originally, the word applied only to the abduction of children, but early in English law it was employed to designate the same offense with regard to adults.
  • Primary weapon – FEAR

WHAT EXPERTS SAY ABOUT KIDNAPPINGS?

.       Frequency – 1 kidnapping every two weeks worldwide

  • A high number of kidnappings occur in the Philippines
  • Vast bulk of kidnappings is in Latin America and lately, South Africa (Ref: Kroll)

THE REALITY NOBODY WANTS

In 1997 

  • The Philippines was the 4th kidnap capital of the world with 500 cases or more.
  • Colombia was 1st with 4,000
  • Mexico was 2nd with 1,400
  • Brazil was 3rd with 800.

However, from April 2002 to March 2003

  • 3,071 kidnappings and 4,210 abductions were reported in South Africa alone

WHERE VICTIMS ARE SNATCHED?

  • In place of business or work
  • On the Street
  • In Shopping Malls
  • In Schools
  • At Home

KIDNAPPING AS AN INDUSTRY

  • Recruitment and Training
  • Research on Target Victim’s Resources
  • Planning of Operations
  • Snatching of Victim
  • Hiding of Victim
  • Ransom Negotiation
  • Ransom Collection
  • Sanitation / Clean Up Operation
  • Investment or Money Laundering
  • Neutralization of Obstacles and Cultivation of Support
  • Legal Aspects

NEW TACTICS EMPLOYED

  • Ransom money is paid elsewhere
  • Pre-kidnap threat is employed and ransom paid in advance
  • Use of sophisticated equipment
  • Have enough funding to cover cost of operation

ATTITUDE TOWARDS KIDNAPPING

  • Many businessmen choose not to recognize the seriousness of the threat.
  • Many corporations leery of exposing their vulnerabilities to the public have suppressed reports of successful kidnappings.

DILEMMA

  • What are you going to do if your CEO is kidnapped?
  • Are you prepared to respond?

COUNTERMEASURES

  • Security Directors focus on executive protection awareness and services – often different from the normal corporate security procedures
  • Hire an executive protection specialist
  • Send corporate security officers for training
  • An Executive Protection Program is planned and implemented
  • Equipping the target executive, family and support personnel with the tools (countermeasures) to reduce exposure to dangerous situations
  • TRADITIONAL APPROACH:
  • USE OF BODYGUARDS.
  • MUCH MORE IMPORTANT AND EFFECTIVE:
  • PREVENTION

 

 

BODYGUARDS PROTECTION SPECIALITS
BODYGUARD IS AN OLD FASHIONED NAME PROTECTION SPECIALIST IS A NEW PROFESSIONAL NAME
POPULAR MEANING DEFINES BETTER SELECTIONS
KEVIN COSTNER FILMED IT KEVIN COSTNER WOULD NEVER MAKE IT IN REALITY
WILL WORK FOR LESS MORE EXPENSIVES
BRAWN NOT BRAINS BRAIN NOT BRAWNS
SAMURAI WERE BODYGUARDS WEARS A SUIT NOT KIMONO
5TH OLDEST PROFESSION GRADUATE OF A PROTECTION SCHOOL

KIDNAPPING – A CLASSIC ART OF TERRORISM

  • Kidnapping is a classic art of terrorism
  • FEAR is the terrorists’ best weapon because “Terror breeds terror and with terror comes destruction of the human spirit and determination to oppose the sources of terror.
  • Terrorists exploit this to ensure compliance to their demands.

3 TYPES OF KIDNAPPING

  1. POLITICAL
  2. CRIMINAL
  3. PASSION

POLITICAL KIDNAPPING

  • Victim is normally not harmed
  • Kidnappers aim for greater propaganda impact (Patricia Hearst Case)
  • Unintentional harm occurs due to an accident, sometimes when victim resisted
  • Intentional harm cannot be ruled out

 PATRICIA HEARTS KIDNAPPING

  • February 4, 1974 – Patricia Hearst, a 19-year-old college student and daughter of Randolph Hearst, a newspaper publisher, was taken from her apartment.
  • 8 days later, the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) demanded $400M food distribution program for the poor
  • Hearst announced the demand was impossible to meet but concern on her daughter’s safety, he later pledged to comply with the demands.
  • S. Attorney General William B. Saxbe urged the Hearst family not to give in to the demands.
  • 2 weeks later, a $2 million food distribution program begun but the SLA denounced it as “throwing a few crumbs to the needy” and demanded an additional $4 million.
  • The family announced $2M would be donated upon Patricia’s release and additional $2M would be made available in January 1975.
  • The SLA’s size never exceeded 25 or 30 persons dominated by young Maoist radicals.
  • In this kidnapping, they did not get any amount but ATTAINED 100% MEDIA PUBLICITY
  • April 15, 1974 – a branch of the Hibernia Bank in San Francisco was robbed of $10,960. CCTV cameras identified Patricia Hearst as one of the participants. Initial reports suggested Hearst might have been acting under duress. The FBI accused her a fugitive, stating that eyewitnesses had indicated she was not a reluctant participant. A number of explanations for her participation, from coercion to brainwashing, appeared in the media.
  • On April 24, identifying herself as Tania in a tape-recorded message, Patricia Hearst announced her allegiance to the SLA. A clear case of Stockholm Syndrome. Patricia Hearst eventually surrendered and acquitted of charges then married his bodyguard.

STOLKHOLM SYNDROME

  • Means a hostage’s sympathy for his captor
  • A condition experienced by people who have been held hostage for some time in which they begin to identify with and feel sympathetic toward their captors
  • In late 20th century, this term was named for Stockholm , Sweden, where a bank employee taken hostage in a robbery became attached to one of her captors.

CRIMINAL KIDNAPPING

  • Usually motivated by personal gain
  • Traditional demand for ransom
  • Harm is inevitable as victim is of no value after ransom is paid

TARGET VICTIMS OF KFRG

  • TARGETS –
  • Individuals who wield power, financial or political
  • Rich Chinese-Filipinos
  • Filipino Businessmen
  • Foreigners/expatriates
  • Dependents of affluent families
  • Wives of rich businessmen
  • Top executives of big companies

PASSION KIDNAPPING

  • Turned off or jealous lover
  • Vengeance
  • Victim may be harmed
  • Kidnapper may end up killing himself

PSYCHOLOGY OF ABDUCTIONS – The Victims

It can’t happen to me Attitude: 

Too confident, this type of person thinks:

  • Harm will fall on others but not to him
  • Everyone holds him in high regard and no one would want to attack him
  • Will aggressively resist any effort to protect himself and may take unnecessary risk to demonstrate he is not vulnerable.

Nothing can be done about it Attitude:

A Fatalist, he may feel that:

  • An event will occur regardless of what is done to prevent it because it is useless to interfere with fate
  • If he is abducted, killed or harmed, it is simply fate operating in a normal manner

It will reflect on my reputation Attitude:

  • Extremely conscious of his image
  • He feels he should not do anything that might indicate a lack of bravery, decisiveness or reflect on his leadership (False Bravery), ergo, anything he might do to protect himself would damage the image he imagines he present
  • Cannot accept advice or suggestion concerning his well-being from others in lesser position that he occupies

Indecisiveness on Protection:

  • Distrustful on protection offered to him
  • Fluctuation between agreement and disagreement with protective measures
  • Demonstrates constant change in attitude toward security

PSYCHOLOGY OF ABDUCTIONS – The Kidnapper

  • Uses the element of SURPRISE to sow confusion and frighten everyone
  • Careful and patient planner – an intelligent kidnapper will devote a great amount of time, effort and resources to ensure that he can surprise the victim

STATISTICS ON HOSTAGE TAKING

  • 87% – Probability of actually seizing hostage
  • 79% – chance all the terrorists would escape punishment or death
  • 40% – chance that all or some demands would be met
  • 29% – chance of full compliance with such demands
  • 83% – chance of success where safe passage or exit for the themselves was the sole demand
  • 67% – all or virtually all the terrorists would still escape alive by going underground, safe passage in lieu of their original demands, or surrendering to a sympathetic government
  • 100% – major publicity gain (Source – CIA)

A TOTAL EXECUTIVE PROTECTION PLAN

To reduce the chance of becoming victims,

a Total Executive Protection Plan must be

prepared for:

  • target executive
  • family
  • support personnel

It must cover

  • Prevention planning
  • Kidnap attempt
  • Hostage survival
  • Vehicle security
  • Defensive driving
  • Bomb threat contingency
  • Duress code
  • Crisis management
  • Current dossiers
  • Psychology and probability of abduction
  • Pros and cons of escape attempts
  • Risk factors involved
  • Development of strategies to cope with the problem

THE EXECUTIVE PROTECTION PROGRAM

  • Not all are Primary Targets
  • Must have a contingency program for all
  • Establish Basic Protection Procedures
  • Plan for Crisis Management
  • Identify who is in charge of the program
  • Identify who makes what decisions
  • Provision for ransom demands
  • Test and evaluate the above BEFORE and NOT AFTER an incident

RESPONSIBILITY

  • Executive Protection Specialist – in charge of the planning, development and execution of the program
  • Crisis Response Team – organized to handle the crisis to be composed by:
  1. COO or representative
  2. Security Chief
  3. Treasury Chief
  4. Negotiator
  5. PR man

KEY ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL EPP

  • Salesmanship – sell the need and the program
  • Public Relations – promote your resource persons from law enforcement and private security. The more validity they have, the more valid your plan will be
  • Presentation – The look of a good program –Is it neat? Colorful? Professional?
  • Follow through is essential – Update the program at least once a year; count on the executives’ families as allies.

WEAKNESSES IN THE EPP – The Aldo Moro Kidnapping

  • March 16, 1978, Aldo Moro was kidnapped from his car in a Rome street near his home.
  • His five bodyguards were shot dead during the abduction
  • At that time, there were 78 kidnappings in 1977 and more than doubled in 1978.

Despite this situation, security procedures were either  ignored or allowed to deteriorate

WEAKNESSES NOTED

  • Failure to Assess the Risk – 78 kidnappings in 1977 and more than double in 1978;
  • Presenting a Conspicuous Target – Moro was visible and easily identified in his car
  • Failure to Change Routine – use the same route
  • Failure to Coordinate Plans – different police units provided security
  • Lack of Professionalism – security were new graduates, no special training, weapons substandard and driver is a long time employee
  • Failure to Follow Good Security Procedures – escorts drove too close to Moro’s car.

THE 24 HOUR PROTECTION CYCLE

  • Protection measures MUST BE SIMPLE to be effective
  • Tested deterrents are established and carefully followed
  • Need not be extremely costly
  • Should not interrupt the lifestyle
  • Plans must be detailed, tested and revised
  • Must start with an economical, workable and effective physical security program to secure the facilities used by the executive

Phase I – En route to the office, country club, or

other locations routinely visited

  • Use of Route
  • Driver as bodyguard
  • Advance Party, Close In and Back Up Security
  • Weapons
  • Communications
  • Vehicle type and profile
  • Evasive Actions
  • Support along the route and destination

 

 

Phase II – Inside the Facility Housing the

Executive Offices

  • Access Control
  • Surveillance and Alarm System
  • Board Room Check
  • Custodial Staff Screening
  • Passage Check
  • Building Check

Phase III – Precaution During Lunch

  • Within the building
  • Outside the building – private club or restaurant
  • Return trip

Phase IV – In the Business Office

Follow Phase II again throughout the working day:

  • Access Control
  • Surveillance and Alarm System
  • Board Room Check
  • Custodial Staff Screening
  • Passage Check
  • Building Check

Phase V – En route Home

Follow Phase I again:

  • Use of Route
  • Driver as bodyguard
  • Advance Party, Close In and Back Up Security
  • Weapons
  • Communications
  • Vehicle type and profile
  • Evasive Actions
  • Support along the route and destination

Phase VI – Protection of the Executive’s Residence

  • Complete security survey
  • Educate the family & household staff
  • Apply Security or Defense-In-Depth (a 3-layered barrier system)

SECURITY  OR DEFENSE IN DEPTH

FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE

Presence of friendly installations in the perimeter like:

  • police station
  • military base
  • LGU installations
  • public frequented places
  • private security forces
  • barangay tanods
  • friendly neighborhood
  • religious institutions

SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE

Protection of the residence include human, structural, animals, electronics, man made or natural barriers.

THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE

The inside of the residence is protected by walls, windows, doors, cameras, alarms, secret passages and a strong room.

Phase VIII – Stockholders’ Meetings

  • Prior coordination with venue officials and support services
  • Protection is dictated by current climate and type of business the corporation is involved

Phase IX – Corporate Travel

  • By Air – secure aircraft, if owned; if using commercial aircraft, don’t announce travel schedule, use other names, use 2 or 3 planes for large groups.
  • By Land – advance party is sent or arrange for pick up, use pre-planned route
  • Billet Security – accredit the place, get assurance of confidentiality

Phase X – Vacation

  • Low Profile
  • Avoid trouble areas
  • Use sound judgment
  • Do not announce
  • Arrange for mail pick up, lawn clearing, newspapers and bills delivery, divert phone calls, etc (may not be applicable locally).

Phase XI – Protection of the Executives Family

  • Protect the children
  • Examine wife’s social activity
  • Train the family and household staff
  • Keep personal data of each member of the family

SAMPLE EXECUTIVE PROTECTION AWARENESS COURSE

  • Introduction to Terrorism
  • Crisis Management
  • Hostage Survival
  • Observation and Description
  • Individual Protective Measures
  • Home Security Measures
  • Safe Havens
  • Firearms Training
  • Defensive and Evasive Driving
  • Surveillance and Counter-Surveillance with PE
  • Explosive Devices
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